Monday, September 19, 2011

The Five FSMO Roles

There are just five operations where the usual multiple master model breaks down, and the Active Directory task must only be carried out on one Domain Controller.  FSMO roles:
PDC Emulator - Most famous for backwards compatibility with NT 4.0 BDC's.  However, there are two other FSMO roles which operate even in Windows 2003 Native Domains, synchronizing the W32Time service and creating group policies.  I admit that it is confusing that these two jobs have little to do with PDCs and BDCs.
RID Master - Each object must have a globally unique number (GUID).  The RID master makes sure each domain controller issues unique numbers when you create objects such as users or computers.  For example DC one is given RIDs 1-4999 and DC two is given RIDs 5000 - 9999.
Infrastructure Master - Responsible for checking objects in other other domains.  Universal group membership is the most important example.  To me, it seems as though the operating system is paranoid that, a) You are a member of a Universal Group in another domain and b) that group has been assigned Deny permissions.  So if the Infrastructure master could not check your Universal Groups there could be a security breach.
Domain Naming Master - Ensures that each child domain has a unique name.  How often do child domains get added to the forest?  Not very often I suggest, so the fact that this is a FSMO does not impact on normal domain activity.  My point is it's worth the price to confine joining and leaving the domain operations to one machine, and save the tiny risk of getting duplicate names or orphaned domains.
Schema Master - Operations that involve expanding user properties e.g. Exchange 2003 / forestprep which adds mailbox properties to users.  Rather like the Domain naming master, changing the schema is a rare event.  However if you have a team of Schema Administrators all experimenting with object properties, you would not want there to be a mistake which crippled your forest.  So its a case of Microsoft know best, the Schema Master should be a Single Master Operation and thus a FSMO role.

What is OSI Model

7)  Application Layer : The application layer provider different services to the application. Example of services provided by this layer are file transfer, electronic messaging e-mail, virtual terminal access and network management.
6) Presentation Layer : The Presentation layer is responsible for protocol conversion, date encryption/decryption, Expanding graphics command and the date compression. This layer makes the communications between two host possible.
5) Session Layer : This layer is responsible for establishing the process-to-process communication between the host in the network. This layer is responsible for establishing and ending the sessions across the network. The interactive login is an example of services provided by this layer in which the connective are re-connected in care of any interruption.
4) Transport Layer : This layer is responsible for end-to-end delivers of messages between the networked hosts. It first divides the streams of data into chunks or packets before transmission and  then the receiving computer re-assembles the packets. It also guarantee error free data delivery without loss or duplications.
3) Network Layer : This layer is responsible for translating the logical network address and names into their physical address ( MAC address). This layer is also responsible for addressing, determining routes for sending and managing network problems such as packet switching, data congestion and routines.
2) Data Link Layer : Data link layer is responsible for controlling the error between adjacent nodes and transfer the frames to other computer via physical layer. Data link layer is used by hubs and switches for their operation.
1) Physical Layer : Physical  Layer is responsible for transmitting row bit stream over the physical cable. The physical layer defines the hardware items such as cables, cards, voltages etc.

Saturday, September 10, 2011

How to use Gmail, Calendar, Docs offline

The great thing about Web apps is that you can access your information on the go, and on variety of devices like mobile phones and tablets.

However, there are occasions when you don't have an internet connection making you often fret on the utility of these apps. But, starting today you will be able to access Gmail, Google Calendar and Google Docs offline.
Gmail Offline is a Chrome Web Store app that's intended for situations when you need to read, respond to, organise and archive email without an internet connection.

This HTML5-powered app is based on the Gmail web app for tablets, which is built to function with or without Web access. After you install the Gmail Offline app from the Chrome Web Store, you can continue using Gmail when you lose your connection by clicking the Gmail Offline icon on Chrome's "new tab" page.

Google Calendar and Google Docs let you seamlessly transition between on- and offline modes. When you're offline in Google Calendar, you can view events from your calendars and RSVP to appointments.

With Google Docs you can view documents and spreadsheets when you don't have a connection. Offline editing isn't ready yet, but we know it's important to many of you, and we're working hard to make it a reality. To get started using Google Calendar or Google Docs offline, just click the gear icon at the top right corner of the web app and select the option for offline access.

10 useful accessories for your desk

Jabra offers a USB powered speakerphone that is great for one-onone or small conference calls. It has wideband sound quality and an omnidirectional microphone for crystal-clear calls. There is an integrated cable managment system and it comes with a pouch for storage and portability. Weighing a mere 250g, this speakerphone also has a headset port whereyou can plug-in any 3.5mm headphones in case you want the call to be private. 8,000 from 

USB Hub & Mug Warmer 
For many people, office doesn’t start without a cup of morning coffee. This USB powered mug warmer has a metal heating plate protected by insulation material — it can keep your coffee warm while you take your time to enjoy it. The heating plate works great for ceramic, glass and metal mugs. There is also a status light to indicate that the warmer is ready to be used. The additional USB ports can be used to connect other devices. 699 from

USB Display 
This little monitor is completely powered off USB – just one cable is needed for both the video signal and 
power. The 7-inch 800 x 480 pixel panel is touchscreen enabled too – you can move certain items onto it to 
clear space from your primary display. The best part is that since the display connects via USB, your regular 
VGA/HDMI out is unused and can be used to output to another device simultaneously. The display is compatible 
with both PC and Mac (the touchscreen functionality is only compatible with Intel-powered Macs and needs an dditional driver). $229.99 from 

USB Cooler 
This tiny refrigerator-shaped USB accessory can actually keep a canned beverage chilled. A cool blue LED lights p when the door is opened, just like the light inside an actual fridge. Practically, it can’t cool a hot can, ut it can keep an already chilled can colder for a longer time (as compared to if it was left in the open). he flamboyant red colour also adds a little zing to your desk. $19.99 from

Phantom Keystroker 
Quite an effective and hard-to-catch office prank, this. The Phantom Keystroker looks like a simple USB flash rive but it actually mimics a keyboard and mouse when connected to a computer. All you have to do is plug it nto a (hidden) USB port and it randomly inserts letters while typing or moves the mouse pointer around. The nfuriated victim will never find out. $12.99 from

USB Foldable keyboard
If your netbook’s keyboard proves too small for you or you just prefer to carry your own keyboard around, this lexible USB keyboard is ideal. Since the keys and base material are made of silicon, it is completely silent. ven though it has the full 104 keys, you can roll it up into a small package. The added advantage is that the keys are completely waterproof and dustproof. $23.99 from

USB paper schredder 
A lot of information about you can be accumulated by anyone who goes through your trash. That’s why any 
personally identifiable or sensitive information (bank statements, credit card alerts, PIN numbers) should be 
completely destroyed using a paper shredder. This little USB (or battery) powered shredder is small enough to it quietly under your desk. 2,022 from

USB Vaccum Cleaner 
A full-size vacuum cleaner would be overkill for use on your keyboard or smaller computer peripherals. That’s hy you’ll need this dainty little handheld USB vacuum cleaner with a reusable dust bag. A couple of small ttachments (tube and brush) are included so that you can get all the muck out of the keyboard crevices and ther hard-to-reach places like speaker grills. It also has a small LED to light the way for more effective 
cleaning. 150 from 

ASUS CrossLink Cable 
Connecting two computers directly without a network is a pain. Thanks to Asus’ Crosslink USB cable and adapter, ou can quickly connect and transfer data at high-speeds between two computers. The adapter is shaped like a SB drive, has 2GB storage and a miniUSB port on the other side to connect using the Crosslink cable. You can ven share an internet connection and optical drive between two PCs. 4,000 from eBay Global EasyBuy

USB Phone2PC
This handly little device is great if you want to keep a record of all your voice calls. It can be connected to ost phones using an analog or digital connection and then it connects to the PC using USB. A software is equired to be installed which provides an easy-to-use interface to record incoming/outgoing calls. It includes n external microphone for recording meetings and interviews directly to the PC as well. 10,000 

Wednesday, September 7, 2011

Monday, September 5, 2011

5 Ways to Back Up Your Data

1. Save it to a NAS Device

A NAS (network attached storage) is a server that’s dedicated for saving data. It can operate either wired or wireless -- depending on the drive and your computer – and, once configured, can display as simply another drive on your computer.
·         Can back up several computers at once
·         Can “set and forget” for automatic backup
·         Pricey

2. Save it to an External or Portable Hard Drive

External and portable hard drives differ from NAS devices in that they connect to one computer at a time. They are usually wired devices, although some have wireless capabilities. Many external and portable drives are now coming with USB 3.0 capabilities, but your computer must also have USB 3.0 to take advantage of this.

·         Easy to use
·         With software, can “set and forget”
·         Hard disk drives run the risk of failure
·         Solid-state drives have less risk but can be expensive for large-capacity drives

3. Burn it to a CD (or DVD or Blue-ray Disc)

Once the gold standard in data backup, burning data to CDs is now a much less popular, albeit still reliable, method of data backup.

·         Drive failure not an issue
·         Can store safely in a second location (safety deposit box, for example)
·         Time consuming
·         Relying on future of CD-capable technology
·         Can get pricey for large amounts of data

4. Keep it Online

The number of locations for storing data “in the cloud”  is growing monthly. Current options include,, and

·         Usually affordable
·         Data secured in a very remote location
·         Capacity limitations
·         Run the risk of site Closing

5. Put it on a USB Flash Drive

USB Flash drives are like tiny solid-state drives that you can carry your pocket. While once expensive and available only in small capacities, their prices are dropping and their sizes rising every day.

·         Affordable
·         Portable
·         Now available in USB 3.0
·         Extremely easy to misplace (not recommended for long-term storage of crucial information because of this risk)
·         Not always durable
·         Capacity limitations

Thursday, September 1, 2011

Installing Apache on Windows

Installing Apache on Windows, why? Because let's face it Windows
is easy, and well Apache sure beats using IIS. This tutorial is meant for the person who would like to set up there own little
web server. It's not meant for the IT Person running a fortune 500 company. But hey if you want go ahead.


First thing you need is to download the webserver. Now for windows
users your gonna want to go download the .exe . The apache website is Your gonna wanna head to the apache
binaries sections for Win32 I believe it is at
There you will be able to download a version of apache.

Now before you download it you gonna want to make a folder. This folder is
where your gonna server your root directory. Now if you don't want to do
this it's ok. You can use the default path if you want. Put usually this helps
in setting up other things like php, and MySQL. Most people do is they create
a folder in the C:\ directory called WWW or somthin. You can name it whatever you want.

Ok so have downloaded the Apache Web Server. Your ready to go with the setup.
No the version I have downloaded was apache_2.0.36-win32-x86-no_ssl.msi This
was a newer version and supposedly supposed to be more secure. The first screen you get when your in the setup is The welcome screen we don't care much about that
but owell so hit next. The next screen is the terms and service. And yes
your going to agree to the terms duh. The next screen is some documentation.
I never really read it but if you want go ahead and do it. Once your done
hit next again. Know we see a screen that says enter a network domain. Erase what is ever in there and type localhost. Now the next box says
Servername, erace what is ever in the box and put in localhost.
The next is Administrators e-mail address. Go ahead and fill that in.
But make sure to change it. Now there are 2 little radio buttons.
Pick the one that best suites your needs. Now that we got that all
filled out. Hit Next and you'll go to a screen that asks you which
type of install you want to do. Then hit next.

If you wanted to server out of your one special folder. Change the
file location of were your gonna install apache. Or just leave it at the default path. Click install and it should be on
it's way. Once it's done installing hit the finish button.

The test:
First were gonna check to see if Apache installed correctly.
This is how we do it. Open up Internet Explorer and type in " http://localhost" . If everything went smooth then you should
be seeing a message that looks like this" Seeing this instead of the website you expected?" Yippee!!!
Apache is working. See now wasnt' that really simple. Ok now were gonna
do some fun stuff.

Alright now that we got or test done lets move on to changing some of this
stuff that apache did on default. In Internet Explorer if you installed
on the deafult path. Make your way to C:\Program Files\Apache Group\Apache2
This is your Main Apache Directory were you can find everything. If you want
take a short break and run around. There are some cool things there. Don't
worry if you don't understand what's in these files just yet.

Break Time:
Go take a leak, get some pepsi and somthin to eat. If you got smokes light
them up in your new found glory.

Alright so now you've got apache installed and your about to start dishing out
your web pages that you took so much time on to build. Head to the folder called
htdocs, this is your main folder. There should be a whole bunch of pages What i do
is i select them all and move them to another folder. The htdocs folder is the best
folder in the world. It's gonna be one of the places you spend most of your time
dishing out content for the world. Ok so get rid of all that stuff that is in your
htdocs folder. And move all your great content inside replacing it. Alright so now
once we moved all are content inside the htdocs folder and we tested it to make
sure it was there. http://localhost remember. Now let's get out of there. Go to
Apache's main directory. Now just to be aware of what is going on and get a good
example of how Apache Functions head off to a folder called "conf" This is the
configuration files Apache Uses. If you ever wanted to install php and other
server side scripting languages this is where you would do it. Now you get 2 copys
Use 1 as a backup and never edit it at all. Go ahead and open the folder and open
"httpd.conf" Read it very carefully cause in this tutorial were not gonna read
about it. I just want you to know it's there. Anytime you edit the httpd.conf file
you must re-start apache in order for it to work. Another good tip for you new people
to apache is you may notice the log files. Yes there great and make sure to make backups
of the logs they will come in handy. As security precautions. I also recommend getting
a firewall set up. There are lots of great security features that apache has but this
is a tutorial to installing apache.

Alright so now you've got your webpages up. But the only way people will be able to view
your pages is my typing in your ip address. This is a bumper. Lets look at some free
re-directories., This is a cool one. You sign up put your ip adress of your
new webserver in and whalla your done. Type in www. and it goes to your server
and brings up your super nice webpages. Now if you go to google and search for free
domain names or re-directors you should come up with alot. Many People already know
about the one of the coolest things in the world. Free .tk very simple
That's all you need. It works perfect for my webserver and I've got around 3,000 hits
so it's working good. If you don't wanna do it you don't have to. But it just
makes it simple.

Alright that comes to the conclusion of installing Apache Win32 for WINDOWS users.
Very easy. One last thing Please Read more of the Apache
Documentation either on there website or in your Apache2
directory. If you liked reading this tutorial on how to setup Apache check my
website for others at . Yes there will be follow ups. I'll be
writing another apache tutorail soon so you can set up PHP. The most awesome
scripting language ever built. And also another on how to secure Apache and yes